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Monday, 27 June 2016

RC coupled amplifier

Saturday, 25 June 2016

Information Technology


Information Technology (IT) is an engineering division, which concentrates on the study of  utilizing computers and telecommunications in order to control, gather, store and circulate information. Bother software and hardware sectors are  parts of Information Technology. Due to the importance and reputation of IT, the present age is sometimes referred to as information technology age. Despite its late entry, it quickly became popular among students and used to create numerous job opportunities with decent pay packages! But with recession, the reputation of this Engineering Branch took a dent. Still, if pursued from a reputed Institute, IT Engineering is a valuable course. In this article, I will provide information about B.E./B.Tech. Information Technology program such as- basic course details, course duration, eligibility criteria, important subjects present, scope and job opportunities.

Students who have an interest in web and internet technology, database management may pursue this course. Students may also go for B.Sc. IT course, but B.E./B.Tech. Degree is more valuable that B.Sc. Degree. Come, let us take a look at the basic course details.


It is a 4 years long Undergraduate Level Degree program. The 4 years’ duration is divided into 8 semesters, with each semester lasting a period of 6 months. During each semester, students will have to face a different set of theoretical subjects as well as practical lab sessions.

Information Technology branch consists of topics related to Information management (storage and retrieving) , Information security, Software engineering, Computer Science, web scripting etc. In short, it is aimed at training students to become Information management experts and put their skills to support various Industries and spheres of life.

To get a better idea about the structure of the course, let us take a look at the list of important subjects present in B.E./B.Tech. Information Technology program.


I’ve listed only the important subjects present in B.E./B.Tech. Information Technology course. It has been done so that readers may get an idea about what the course structure is like.

In the first two semesters, the general set of Engineering subjects are present.

  • Engineering Mathematics
  • Communication Skills
  • Engineering Physics
  • Engineering Graphics
  • Elements of Mechanical Engineering
  • Elements of Electrical Engineering
  • Basics of Civil Engineering
  • Computer Programming and Utilization
  • Mechanics of Solids

After first year, from 3rd semester onward, subjects focusing on IT and its various sub branches are introduced.
  • Data Structure
  • Database Management System
  • Logic Design and Structure
  • File Structure
  • Operating System
  • Programming in C Language
  • Business Information Systems
  • Object Oriented Programming using C++
  • Data Communication
  • Networking
  • Programming using Java
  • Computer Graphics and Multimedia
  • Computer Networks
  • Software Engineering
  • Information Management
  • E-Commerce
  • Web Scripting and Technology
  • Data Mining
  • Project Management
  • Management
  • Data Compression
  • Java (Advanced)
  • Algorithm Design
  • Electronics

Those were some important subjects present in B.E./B.Tech. Information Technology course. Some of the above mentioned courses are recurring ones, meaning they will appear in more than just one semester.

In case of some subjects, along with the theoretical part, lab sessions are also present. Students, in case of some semesters, will also have to select elective subjects, whose availability may vary from one Institute to another.

In the final and pre final year, Industrial training and project work will play an important role.


10+2 Science stream students with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics subjects, who have passed 12th board examinations from a recognized board are eligible to pursue B.E./B.Tech. Information Technology course.

Students must also have appeared for state level entrance examination to be considered eligible to take part in the admission process. Admission process is held at both Central (Govt run) as well State (State wise Authorities) levels.


Graduates may go for various IT Edge courses offered by Private institutes. M.E./M.Tech. program can also be pursued by Graduates. They may choose to specialize in sub branches within the IT field by taking help of this PG program. M.B.A. is another option that will add to the management skills of a Graduate! Graduates may also go on and pursue relevant M.Sc. programs too!


Information Technology stream offers a lot of job opportunities for the graduates. IT Service provider based companies concerned in hardware/software development, application and its testing employ IT professionals. Some of the top companies employ IT Engineers such as Unisys, Qualcomm, Tata Elixi, Sasken Communications, Airtel, BSNL, Hutchison,Vodafone, VSNL, Accenture, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, ASUS, Cisco Systems, National Instruments, Cypress Semiconductor Tech. Ltd, BEL, Robert Bosch, Alcatel, Siemens, Boeing, Analog Devices India, Insilica Semiconductors and Xilinx India. There are also lots of job opportunities available in India as well as abroad.

Some job titles: -

  • Programmers
  • PHP Developer
  • Oracle PL/SQL Developer
  • Quality Analyst
  • IT Specialists
  • Technology Engineer
  • Technical Consultant
  • Web Developer and Designer
  • Data Security Officer
  • Database Manager
  • Software Developer
  • Information Technology Engineer

The startup scenario also recruits talented IT professionals. So, those who are looking for a creative and challenging work environment may land a job in the startup sector. One may also use IT skills and start their own venture or even a consultancy firm also. But starting a consultancy business will require one to have good work experience first!

These days, IT companies are even recruiting Graduates from other Engineering branches and training them to take on jobs in IT Industry. This has led to general reduction in salary of Freshers. Still, if you manage to pursue IT Engineering from a reputed Institute, you’ll be able to land a well paying job right from the start. The average starting salary is generally between 20k-40k Rupees per month.

Friday, 24 June 2016

BE Mock round merit list 2016

Thursday, 16 June 2016

JEE/NEET Exam books

Here we are providing you JEE NEET EBOOK OF all subjects. This book helpful for those student who preparing for this examination.

Thursday, 9 June 2016

Std 10 science study material GSEB

GSEB(Gujarat Secondary Education Board)

Standard 10 science study material 

Standard 10 science study material chapter wise with chapter summary and some useful method and important question for Board exam

Wednesday, 8 June 2016


INDUSTRIAL DRIVERS – Electrical Engineering Objective

For Download as PDF go to the bottom of post link available 

1.    The selection of an electric motor for any application depends on which of the following factors ?
(a)    Electrical characteristics
(b)    Mechanical characteristics
(c)    Size and rating of motors
(d)    Cost
(e)    All of the above
Ans: e

Tuesday, 7 June 2016



Download as PDF link available below post where You can download 

Ty BSc Physics syllabus saurashtra university

Semester System Cancel in Standard 9 to 12

ગાંધીનગર– ગુજરાતના શિક્ષણજગત માટે આજે અગત્યનો નિર્ણય સરકાર દ્વારા જાહેર કરાયો છે.મુખ્યપ્રધાન આનંદીબહેન પટેલ શિક્ષણપ્રધાન ભૂપેન્દ્રસિંહ ચૂડાસમાની અધિકારીઓ સાથેની બેઠક બાદ ધોરણ 9થી 12માં સેમેસ્ટર સીસ્ટમ રદ કરવાનો ખૂબ જ અસરકર્તા નિર્ણય લેવાયો છે.તો  આરોગ્યપ્રધાન નિતીન પટેલે પણ કેટલીક મહત્ત્વની જાહેરાત કરી છે. જેમાં રાજ્યમાં આવતા વર્શે લેવાનારી  નીટની પરીક્ષા ગુજરાતીમાં લેવાનો નિર્ણય કરાયો છે. આરોગ્યપ્રધાન નિતીન પટેલ અને ખાનગી મેડિકલ કોલેજોના સંચાલકો વચ્ચે એક બેઠક યોજાઈ હતી, જેમાં મેડિકલ એડમિશન પ્રક્રિયાને લગતી ચર્ચા કરવામાં આવી હતી. બાદમાં આ નિવેદન સામે આવી રહ્યું છે. તેમની જાહેરાત પ્રમાણે સાયન્સ પરીક્ષામાં આ ફેરફાર કરવામાં આવી રહ્યો છે. ધોરણ 10 અને 12માં સેમ સીસ્ટમ રદ થતાં પહેલાં અમલી વાર્ષિક પરીક્ષા પદ્ધતિઅમલમાં આવી ગઈ છે.

આજે જ શરુ થયેલાં પહેલાં સેમેસ્ટરની પરીક્ષા શાળાઓ દ્વારા લેવામાં આવશે. આ સંદર્ભે શિક્ષણપ્રધાન ભૂપેન્દ્રસિંહ ચૂડાસમાએ સત્તાવાર જાહેરાત કરી હતી કે  સેમેસ્ટર સીસ્ટમ રદ કરવાના મહત્ત્વના નિર્ણયમાં ધોરણ 9થી 12ને આવરી લેવાયાં છે. આ તમામ ધોરણની હવેથી વાર્ષિક પરીક્ષાઓ લેવાશે. બોર્ડ હવે વાર્ષિક પરીક્ષાના ધોરણે દસમા અને બારમાની પરીક્ષાઓ લેશે. એટલે કે સેમ સીસ્ટમ લાગુ પડાઈ તે પહેલાંની સ્થિતિ યથાવત થઈ રહી છે.

નીટ પરીક્ષાના સંદર્ભે જણાવાયું હતું કે સીબીએસઈના ધોરણે નવો અભ્યાસક્રમ તૈયાર કરાશે અને આવતા વર્ષે ગુજરાતી વિદ્યાર્થીઓ નીટની પરીક્ષા સરળતાથી આપી શકે તે માટે પુસ્તક પુરવણી આપવામાં આવશે.

નિતીન પટેલે  એવી પણ જાહેરાત કરી હતી કે, ધોરણ 11 અને 12નો અભ્યાસક્રમ નીટની પરીક્ષા મુજબ અને સીબીએસસી કક્ષાનો કરવા કવાયત હાથ ધરાઈ છે અને થોડાસમયમાં જ ફેરફાર સાથેના નવા અભ્યાસક્રમની જાહેરાત કરાશે. ખાનગી મેડિકલ કોલેજોમાં પ્રવેશ પ્રક્રિયાને લઈને તેમણે જણાવ્યું હતું કે સ્વનિર્ભર મેડિકલ કોલેજોની 25 ટકા બેઠક  નીટના આધારે મેનેજમેન્ટ ક્વોટામાં ભરવામાં આવશે. જે હેઠળ 14 ખાનગી કોલેજોની 556 બેઠકો ભરાશે. 30 સપ્ટેમ્બર પહેલાં પ્રવેશ પ્રક્રિયા પૂર્ણ થવાની ખાતરી પણ તેમણે આપી હતી.

આ સમયે સેમસીસ્ટમ વિશે અવલોકન કરીએ તો…જ્યારે સેમેસ્ટર સીસ્ટમ અંગે ફેરવિચારણા કરવા ગત વર્ષે રાજ્ય સરકારે એક સમિતિની રચના કરી હતી. આ સમિતિએ ગત વર્ષ દરમિયાન અનેક બેઠકો કરી હતી જેમાં શૈક્ષણિક સંઘો, શાળા સંચાલકો, આચાર્યો, વાલીઓ અને વિદ્યાર્થીઓને સાંભળ્યાં હતાં. સમિતિએ પોતાનો અહેવાલ સરકારને સોંપી દીધો હતો. સેમેસ્ટર સીસ્ટમના કારણે રાજ્યના સરેરાશ

પરિણામો અત્યંત નીચાં ગયાં હોવાની અને સેમ સીસ્ટમથી વિદ્યાર્થીઓ અને શિક્ષકો સતત પરીક્ષાકાર્યમાં જ વ્યસ્ત રહેતાં હોવાના કારણે અન્ય ક્ષેત્રો પ્રભાવિત થતાં હોવાની, શિક્ષણકાર્ય પૂર્ણ ન થતું હોવાની, ચાર પરીક્ષાઓના બોજ તળે વિદ્યાર્થીઓનો વિકાસ રુંધાવાની  સમસ્યાઓ મોટેભાગે સમિતિ સમક્ષ બહાર આવી હતી.  ખાસ કરીને વિવિધ શિક્ષણ સંઘો દ્વારા સમિતિમાં ભારપૂર્વક એવી રજૂઆતો કરવામાં આવી હતી કે સેમેસ્ટર સીસ્ટમ રદ કરી પહેલાંની જેમ વાર્ષિક ધોરણે પરીક્ષા લેવાય અને તેમાં 50 ટકા થિયરી અને 50 ટકા ઓએમઆર પદ્ધતિનો સમાવેશ કરવામાં આવે. તેમ જ ચાર સેમેસ્ટરના કુલ 132 ગુણથી પાસના બદલે વર્ષ 2017-18થી  ધોરણ 11 અને 12 એમ બંને પરીક્ષાના દરેક વિષયમાં 66 ગુણ થતાં વિદ્યાર્થીને પાસ કરવા અંગે રજૂઆત કરવામાં આવી હતી. એક વર્શથી ચાલી રહેલી વિચારણા છતાં જે નિર્ણય લેવાયો ન હતો તેની પાછળ હેવ નીટ ફરજિયાત થવાનું કારણ હોવાનું નિષ્ણાતો માની રહ્યાં છે. સાયન્સમાં સેમ સીસ્ટમ રદ કરાતાં  વિદ્યાર્થીઓ અને વાલીઓ આ નિર્ણયને આવકાર આપી રહ્યાં છે.

Monday, 6 June 2016

Classification of Transducers

Classification of Transducer 

For Download as PDF link available at bottom of the post

1. Based on the Physical phenomenon

1. Primary: The transducer which sends the measurement and converts them into another variables[ displacement, strain, etc.] and whose output forms the input of transducer is called as Primary transducer.

1. Bourdon TubeUsed in Pressure measurements.
2. Strain GaugeUsed in force and Strain measuremants.

2. Secondary: The transducer which converts the output of first transducer into an electric output called Secondary transducer.

1. LVDTUsed to measure displacement, Force, Pressure and position.

2. Based on the power type

1. Active: Which do not recuire any power sources for their operation. They work on energy conversion principle. They produce an electrical signal proportional to the input[ Physical quantity ].

1. ThermocoupleUsed to maesure Temperature, Radiation and Heat flow.
2. Photovoltaic CellUsed in light meter and solar cell.

2. Passive: Which recuire an external power source for their operation. They produce an output signal in the form of some variation in resistance, capacitance or any other electric parameter. Which than has to be converted to an equivalent current or voltage signal.

1. Photocell [ LDR ]
2. Capacitive transducersUsed to measure liquid level.
3. Resistive transducersUsed to measure Temperature, Pressure, Displacement.
4. Inductive transducerUsed to measure Pressure, Vibration, Position, Displacement etc.

 3. Based on the the type of output

1. Analog: The transducer which produces their outputs in analog form. A form which continuous function of time.

1. Strain gaugeUsed to mearsure Displacement, Force and Torque.
2. ThermistorUsed to mearsure Temperature and Flow.

2. Digital: The transducer which producess their output in digital form. A form of pulses.

1. Turbine meterUsed to mearsure Flow. 

4. Based on the electrical phenomenon

1. Resistive: Change in resistance of these sensors when certain physical quantity is applied to it.

1. Resistance thermometerUsed to measure Temperature and Radiant Heat.
2. Potentiometer device: Converts the change in displacement into change in the resistance.  Used to mearsure Displacement and Pressure.
3. ThermistorUsed to mearsure Temperature and Flow.

2. Capacitive: The change in distance between the two plateproduced by the displacement results in change in capacitance.

1.Dielectric gauge: Used to measure Thickness and Liquid Level.
2. Capacitor microphone: Used to measure Noice, Speech and Music

3. Indutive:

1. Reluctance Pick-up: Used to mearsure Pressure, Vibration, Position, Displacement.
2. Eddy current gsuge: Used to mersure Sound, Force, Pressure.
3. LVDT: Used to measure displacement, Force, Pressure and Position.

4. Photoelectric: Converts light beam into a usable electric signal. Used to mearsure light intensity.

5. Photovoltic: Used to Photovoltaic cell and Photographic work.

5. Based on the non-electrical phenomenon

1. Linear displacement

2. Rotary displacement

6. Based on transduction

1. Transducer: A mearsuring device which measures and converts non-electrical variable into electrical variable.

1. Thermocouple: Used to maesure Temperature, Radiation and Heat flow.

2. Inverse transducer: A measuring device which measures and converts an electrical variable into non-electrical variable.

1. Piezo-electric crystal: Used to measure Pressure, Vibration and Acceleration.

Photoconductive Transducers:

Used to maesure Radiation at all Wavelengths.

Ionization Transducer:

Converts displacement to a voltage through capacitance change. Used to measure stedy magnetic field.

Hall-Effect Transducers

Digital Displacement Transducers:

Used to measure angular and linear displacements.

Download as PDF:-


STD 10 Science material GSEB

GSEB(Gujarat Secondary Education Board)

Standard 10 Science Material chapter wise

Standard 10 na chapter wise materials with basic and chapter summary and some short method & trick 
Chapter -7


HEATING and WELDING – Electrical Engineering Objective 

For Download as PDF file

Sunday, 5 June 2016


CONTROL SYSTEMS – Electrical Engineering Objective Type Questions and Answers :-

ISRO Recruitment 2016

ISRO Recruitment 2016

ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) Bengaluru invites application for the post of 166 Technician-B, Draughtsman-B, Technical Assistant, Scientific Assistant, Library Assistant & Nurse. Apply Online before 17 June 2016.

Advt. No. : ISAC:02:2016

Job Details :

Post Name : Technician-B
No of Vacancy : 120 Posts
Pay Scale : Rs. 5200-20200/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 2000/-
Post Name : Draughtsman-B
No of Vacancy : 06 Posts
Pay Scale : Rs. 5200-20200/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 2000/-
Post Name : Technical Assistant
No of Vacancy : 33 Posts
Pay Scale : Rs. 9300-34800/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 4600/-
Post Name : Scientific Assistant
No of Vacancy : 03 Posts
Pay Scale : Rs. 9300-34800/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 4600/-
Post Name : Library Assistant
No of Vacancy : 03 Posts
Pay Scale : Rs. 9300-34800/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 4600/-
Post Name : Nurse
No of Vacancy : 01 Post
Pay Scale : Rs. 9300-34800/-
Grade Pay : Rs. 4600/-
Eligibility Criteria for ISRO Recruitment :

Educational Qualification :
For Technician-B : SSLC/SSC/Matriculation + ITI/NTC/NAC in relevant trade from NCVT.
For Draughtsman-B : SSLC/SSC/Matriculation + ITI/NTC/NAC in Draughtsman Mechanical trade from NCVT.
For Technical Assistant : First Class Diploma in Mechanical/Electronics/ Computer Science Engineering from a recognized State Board.
For Scientific Assistant : First Class Graduate in BSc (Chemistry) from a recognized University/Institution.
For Library Assistant : Graduate + First Class Master’s degree in Library Science / Library & Information Science or Equivalent from recognized University/Institution.
For Nurse : SSLC+ 3 Years First Class Diploma in Nursing from a recognized State Board.
Nationality : Indian
Age Limit : 18 to 35 years as on 17.06.2016.
Job Location : Bengaluru (Karnataka)

Selection Process : Selection will be based on Written Examination and Skill test.

Application Fee : General & OBC Candidates have to Pay Rs.2500 through Challan at nearest branch of State Bank of India. Women candidates/Scheduled Castes (SC)/ Scheduled Tribes (ST) Ex-serviceman [EX] and Persons with Disabilities (PWD) candidates are exempted from payment of Application Fee

How to Apply ISRO Vacancy : Interested candidates may apply Online through the website  from 28.05.2016 to 17.06.2016 & Send one part of the challan form (ISRO copy) to Sr. Administrative Officer (RMT), ISRO Satellite Centre, Old Airport Road, Vimanapura Post, Bengaluru -560 017 on or before 24.06.2016.

Important Dates to Remember :

Starting Date For Submission of Online Application : 28.05.2016
Last Date For Submission of Online Application : 17.06.2016
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Mechanical Transducer

Mechanical Transducer

Transducsrs depending upon the change in property or the energy they bring about to measure specified physical quantities.
The mechanical transducsers are the mechanical elements that are used for converting one form that can be easily measured.
 There are number of mechanical transducers, some of the commonly used

Application of CRO

Linear Variable Differential Transformer

Linear Variable Differential Transformer
1.    Linear Variable Differential Transformer
                             It is a Passive Transducer.
1.      Principle
LVDT works under the principle of mutual induction and the displacement which is a non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.
2.    Contraction
1.            Primary Coil
2.            Secondary Coil 1 S1
3.            Secondary Coil 2 S2
4.            Ferromagnetic Core
5.            Shaft
6.            Shield

1.            The ferromagnetic core is the moving component whose position within the shaft is sensed.
2.            It is surrounded by one primary winding in the center of the former.
3.            The two secondary windings are equal and opposite direction.
4.            If the left secondary windings in the clockwise direction, the right secondary windings will be in the anticlockwise direction.
5.            The net output voltages will be the difference in the voltages between the two secondary coils.
6.            A cylindrical shield protects the windings from damage.
7.            The two secondary coils are represented as S1 and S2.
8.            The induced voltages V1 and V2 in the two secondary are equal but anti phase.

1.    Working
The working of LVDT by splitting the cases into 3 based on the iron core position insulated former.
1.      Center or Null Position
2.      Right of Null Position
3.      Left of Null Position
® On applying an External force which is the Displacement.
® If the core reminds in the null position it without providing any movement.
® Then the voltages induced in both the secondary coils are equal.
® The core is in the centre V1 and V2 are equal and Opposite.
® Hence they cancel out and the Output voltage V0 is zero.
                 V0 = V1 – V2 = 0
® When an external force is applied and it the steel iron core tends to moves towards coil S2.
® V2 is increased but V1 is decreased in magnitude will each other.
® Therefore the net output voltage
V0 = V2 – V1
® This is in phase with V2.
® When an external force is applied and it the steel iron core tends to moves towards coil S1.
® V1 is increased but V2 is decreased in magnitude will each other.
® Therefore the net output voltage
               V0 = V1 – V2
® This is in phase with V1.
v The magnitude of V0 is a function of the distance moved by the one core.
v Phase indicates as to in which direction it has moved.
If core is attached to a moving object, the magnitude of V0 gives the position of that object.
4. Advantages
Ø High output.
Ø High sensitivity (50mV to 300mV).
Ø Very good linearity.
Ø Produces high resolution (>10mm).
Ø Low power consumption.
Ø Low hysteresis.
Ø Small in size and weight less.
Ø It is rugged in design and can also be assigned easily.
Ø Maintains a liner relationship between the voltage difference output and displacement from each position of the core for a displacement of about 4mm.
Ø Very high displacement is required for generating high voltage.
Ø Shielded is required since it is sensitive external magnetic field.
Ø The Performance of the transducer gets affected by vibrations.
Ø Produces output with less power.
Ø The efficiency of the device affected by temperature.
Ø A demodulator will be needed to obtain a d.c. output
Ø Acting as a secondary transducer.
Ø LVDT can be used to measure force, weight and pressure.
Ø Measurement of roll position.
Ø Used as an absolute position sensor even if power is switched off.
Ø Used to measure displacement ranging from fraction mm to cm.
Ø Measurement of material thickness in hot strip or slab steel mills.
 Download as PDF:-Linear Variable Displacement Transformer


1. It may be defined as any device that converts energy is one form to energy in other form.
2. A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another form.               
                                                     3. A transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another form.
Most of the transducers either convert electrical energy into mechanical displacement and/or convert some non-electrical physical quantity to an electrical signal. 

In an electronic instrumentation system, the functions of a transducer are two fold
1. To detect or sense the presence, magnitude and changes in the physical quantity being measured.
2. To provideta proportional electrical output signal as shown in fig.

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