Sunday, 10 June 2018

ALDEHYDES AND KETONES NOTE BY PLANCESS

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. 

If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. 

A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group.

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