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Saturday, 22 September 2018


It is of two types;(i) Spermatogenesis: Formation of sperm.    (ii) Oogenesis : Formation of ova (2) Fertilization: It involves the fusion of haploid male and female gametes to form diploid zygote. 

The fusion of gametic pronuclei is called Karyogamy while the mixing of two sets of chromosomes of two gametes is called amphimixis. (3) Cleavage: It includes the rapid mitotic division of the zygote to form a single layered hollow spherical larva called blastula and its formation is called blastulation. (4) Implantation: The process of attachment of the blastocyst (mammalian blastula) on the endometrium of the uterus is called implantation. (5) Gastrulation: It includes the mass and orderly migration of the organ specific areas from the surface of blastula to their predetermined position which finally produces a 3 layered gastrula larva. It is with 3 primary layers. (6) Organogenesis: It includes the formation of specific organs system from three primary germ layers of gastrula and also includes the morphogenesis and differentiation. Fertilization:(1) Definition: Fusion of a haploid male gamete (spermatozoon) and a haploid female gamete (ovum) to form a diploid cell, the zygote, is called fertilization or syngamy.

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