CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE NOTE BY AAKASH INSTITUTE

Chemical bond:-  Chemical bond is the appealing force which holds various parts collectively in a molecule. There are three types of chemical bonds: Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, Co-ordinate Bond. Octet Rule: Atoms form chemical bonds so as to finish their octet i.E. Eight electrons of their valence shell. Lewis systems:Pair of bonded electrons is by way of a ‘sprint’ (-) commonly called a ‘bond’.


Lone pairs or ‘non-bonded’ electrons are represented by using ‘dots’. Electrons gift inside the last shell of atoms are referred to as valence electrons.  Exceptions to the Octet RuleSpecies with ordinary number of electrons: NO, NO2,Incomplete octet for the crucial atom:  LiCl, BeH2 and BCl. Extended octet for the valuable atom: PF5, SF6 and H2SO4. Fee:Formal charge is the difference among the quantity of valence electrons in an isolated atom and variety of electrons assigned to that atoms in Lewis shape.

Formal fee = [Total number of valence electrons in the free atom ) - (Total number of lone pairs of electrons) -1/2(Total number of shared electrons i.E. Bonding electrons)]Resonance:For molecules and ions showing resonance it isn't always feasible to attract a unmarried Lewis shape. All of the houses of such species can most effective be explained  via  or extra Lewis structures.


Covalent bond is formed between non-metals via sharing of electron. Electron pairs which participate in bonding are called bond pairs. Electron pairs which do no longer take part in bonding are known as lone pairs. There might be single, double or triple covalent bonds among  factors relying on the range of electrons being shared. VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) theory:The form of the molecule is decided through repulsions among all the electron pairs present within the valence shell.

Order of the repulsion: Lone pair↔ Lone pair > Lone pair↔ Bond pair > Bond pair↔ Bond pair. Repulsion a few of the bond pairs is at once proportional to the bond order and  electronegativity distinction between the central atom and the other atoms. Dedication of form of molecules using VSEPR idea: Calculate X using following method.

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