Chemical reactions which involves each oxidation as well as reduction process simultaneously, are called redox reactions (‘pink’) from reduction and ‘ox’ from oxidation). Some of these reactions are always observed through strength change within the form of warmth, light or power.


(i) Intermolecular redox reactions In such reactions, oxidation and reduction take area one after the other in two compounds.

(ii) Intramolecular redox reactions In these reactions, oxidation and discount take location in a single compound.

(iii) Disproportionation reactions these reactions contain discount and oxidation of equal detail of a compound. This reaction is likewise called autoredox reaction.


1. Direct Redox Reactions

Chemical reaction in which oxidation as well as reduction is carried out concurrently in the identical field, is called direct redox response In such reactions, electricity is commonly liberated in the form of heat strength.

2. Indirect Redox Reactions

A response in which oxidation and discount are accomplished one at a time in  separate 1/2-cells, is called oblique redox reaction. In such reactions, energy is commonly liberated in the form of electrical electricity.

Oxidation and Reduction

Reductants and Oxidants

Oxidant or oxidising agent is a chemical substance that may receive one or greater electrons and causes oxidation of a few other species. In different words, the oxidation number of oxidant decreases in a redox response.



Molecules of most electronegative factors which includes O2, O3, halogens.

Compounds having element in its maximum oxidation nation e.G.,

K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, HCIO4, H2SO4, KCIO3, Ce(SO4)2,

Oxides of metals and non-metals such as MgO, CrO3, CO2, and so forth.

Reductant or decreasing agent is a chemical.Substance which could supply one or greater electrons and causes discount of a few different species. In different words, the oxidation wide variety of reductant will increase in a redox reaction.


All metals such as Na, AI, Zn, etc., and a few non – metals, e.G., C, S. P, H2, and so forth.

Steel hydrides like NaH, LiH. KH, CaH2 and so on.


The oxidation quantity is described because the charge in which an atom appears to have while all other atoms are eliminated from it as ions. It may have + or – sign.

[An element may have different values of oxidation number depending upon the nature of compound in which it is present.]

Oxidation number of an detail can be a whole range (nice or terrible) or fractional or zero.

Crucial factors for figuring out Oxidation wide variety

  1. The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of aU the atoms in an uncharged (neutral) compound is zero. In an ion, the algebraic sum is equal to the price at the ion.
  2. All elements inside the simple kingdom have oxidation wide variety 0, e.G., He, Cl2, S8, P4 and many others.
  3. As fluorine is the most electronegative detail, it continually has an oxidation number of – 1 in all of its compounds.
  4. In compounds containing oxygen, the oxidation number of oxygen is – 2 except in peroxides (-1) which includes Na2O2, in OF2 and in O2 F2 (+2 and + 1 respectively).
  5. In all compounds. Except ionic metallic hydrides, the oxidation number of hydrogen is +1. In metal hydrides like NaH, MgH2, CaH2, LiH, and so on the oxidation number of hydrogen is -1.
  6. Oxidation number for alkali metals is +1 and for alkaline earth metals is + 2.
  7. Oxidation range of metallic in amalgams is zero.
  8. In case of coordinate bond, it gives +2 price of oxidation wide variety to much less electronegative atom and -2 values to greater electronegative atom while coordinate bond is directed formless electronegative atom to extra electronegative atom .
  9. If coordinate bond is directed from extra electronegative to much less electronegative atom then its contribution be 0 for both the atoms.
  10. For p-block factors [Except F and 0], the very best oxidation quantity is same to their group number and lowest oxidation number is equal to the institution quantity minus 8.
  11. In transition elements the lowest oxidation quantity is same to the wide variety of ns electrons and maximum oxidation number is same to range of ‘ns’ and (n – l)d unpaired electrons.

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