A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics. Semiconducting materials exist in two types - elemental materials and compound materials.

The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice. The unique arrangement of the crystal lattice makes silicon and germanium the most commonly used elements in the preparation of semiconducting materials. An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of microprocessors and memory devices.

Some of the information on this page may be outdated within a year, due to the fact that new discoveries are made in the field frequently. Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. Semiconductor devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of a number-from a few (as low as two) to billions-of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate, or wafer. In this chapter, what is semiconductor, working principle of semiconductors are explained. Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors, p-n Junction, Common Base Amplifier, Common Emitter Amplifier, Transistor are the important concepts. This chapter carry medium weightage and only 1-3 questions are asked per year.

Communication: Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between two entities (communication) includes the use of technology. Communication technology uses channels to transmit information (as electrical signals), either over a physical medium (such as signal cables), or in the form of electromagnetic waves.

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