Those are soft in nature and may be cut with the help of knife except the lithium. The atoms of alkali metals have the biggest size of their respective durations. The first ionization electricity of the alkali metals are the lowest in comparison to the elements in the other organization. The alkali metals show +1 oxidation state. The alkali metals have low values of reduction ability (as shown in table-I) and therefore have a strong tendency to lose electrons and act as desirable reducing sellers.

The melting and boiling factors of alkali metals are very low because the intermetallic bonds in them are quite vulnerable. Ll the alkali metals shape ionic (electrovalent) compounds. The alkali metals are accurate conductors of warmth and electricity. Alkali metals (besides Li) showcase photoelectric impact. The alkali metals and their salts impart a feature coloration to flame . 

A) all the alkali metals, their oxides, peroxides. Superoxides without difficulty dissolve in water to provide corresponding hydroxides which are strong alkalies. 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 ,Na2O + 2H2O 2NaOH ,Na2O2 + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2O2  ,2KO2 + 2H2O → 2KOH + H2O2 + O2 , 

B). The primary strength of these hydroxides increases as we move  down the institution Li to Cs. 

C) a majority of these hydroxides are pretty soluble in water and thermally    solid except lithium hydroxide.

D) Alkali metals hydroxides being strongly basic react with all acids forming salts.NaOH + HCI → NacI + H2O , 2NaOH + H2 SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O .

Small cation and big anion favors covalency. Order: LiCl > NaCl > KCl > RbCl > CsCl & . LiI > LiBr > LiCl > LiF. Extra the charge at the cation greater is its polarizing electricity and subsequently larger is the covalent person: Na+CI- < Mg+2CI2 < AI+three CI3. More the charge at the anion, more without difficulty it receives polarized thereby presenting greater covalent person to the compound formed eg covalent individual growth within the order. 

NaCI < Na2SO4 < Na3PO4. C) Lattice Energies: Amount of energy required to separate one mole of solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions. Greater the lattice energy, higher is the melting point of the alkali metals halide and lower is its solubility in water. D) Hydration Energy: Amount of energy released when one mole of gaseous ions combine with water to form hydrated ions.M+ (g) + aq → M+ (aq) + hydration energy.X- (g) + aq → X- (aq) + hydration energy.


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